Murmuration of Starlings

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Starlings are small to medium sized song birds that are classified within the Passerine suborder, in the family 'Sturnidea'.

Close to 120 species of starlings and myna birds are included in this family. They are strong, gregarious and relatively aggressive. They are considered to be invasive in some places. Native to Europe, Asia and Africa, excluding the deserts, one can find them now practically worldwide.



The common starling population, which is located in northeastern Europe and northwest Asia, migrates to the south and the west in winter reaching as far as the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa.

Migratory Starling



Common Starling known also as European Starling - Passeriformes>Passeri>Sturnidae>

The starlings feed mainly on fruit, insects and other invertebrates. Their vocals are relatively sophisticated and they are known to adopt sounds from their environment and to integrate these sounds into their own vocals.

In this page we have decided to concentrate only on one aspect of this interesting species - a dance performed by a murmuration of starlings.



Murmuration at Sunset

A starling murmuration dance at twilight is a spectacular and fascinating phenomenon of collective behavior. The videos below were taken over the northern Negev in Israel and show a murmuration of starlings that migrated for the winter from the Ukraine.

Music "Veloma" (by Fabrizio Paterlini) at


Murmurations have triggered scientists from different fields of biology, physics, mathematics and engineering to conduct interdisciplinary studies in order to reveal the mechanism that lies behind it. Once understood, it is believed the rules of collective movement could be used, for example, in the design of coordinated motion of advanced robots.


Collective Movement - Order Within the Chaos


Indeed, the new methods and tools for research have allowed science to make some progress and much data has been collected enabling researchers to create and analyze collective motion models.

Results based on recording of starling murmurations and an analysis on a multi-dimensional level suggest that the individual bird adjusts its movement based on the topographical position and direction of an average of six to seven birds around it.


Chaos within the Order


The current belief suggests that collective behavior in starling murmurations is a tool for scaring potential predators.

It has been proposed, also, that joining the group and increasing its size actually minimizes the chance of the individual to be hunted. The constant movement of the individual, under this approach is towards the center, distancing itself from the edges of the group where the danger is bigger.

Another possibility could be that starlings, being social birds, are actually performing this twilight gathering dance, seen from a distance, to attract those who were scattered at various feeding areas and to gather them to the sleeping location.


Dance of Starlings - Improvisation


Music: film 2, by Gérald, at


Still, the main two questions remain to be answered scientifically: How this collective movement occurs? And why this collective behavior occurs?

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